The recently signed American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (U.S. stimulus bill) allocates $7.2 billion to support the development of broadband capabilities across the United States. Expanded broadband will allow for a much faster and richer Internet-surfing experience, more lifelike teleconferencing, and the outsourcing of more services to the Web, according to a recent white paper from the Information Technology & Innovation Foundation (ITIF).
Many people feel that we already have the processing speed we need to e-mail and download YouTube videos, and that’s enough, but we can’t rely on the status quo, says ITIF president Robert Atkinson. “We have always been able to find transformative uses for increases in proces s ing power, comput ing power, storage, and communications…. As more capabilities come online, a whole set of new things come about that people couldn’t just simply envision.”
John D’Ambrosia of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has forecasted that ethernet speeds will be in the terabit range (one trillion bits per second) by 2015. Broadening bandwidth is a matter of adding to the number of fibers in the fiber-optic cables that carry Web content to desktop computers or to the antennas where it is then broadcast to wireless devices. The process of adding fibers to broadband cable can be very expensive, but, according to ITIF, greater bandwidth in more places is essential to bringing the full capabilities of the Internet, particularly live, streaming video services, to more people. Live videoconferencing is already changing education, work, and the delivery of medicine.
Professors at Carnegie Mellon University teach classes digitally to satellite campuses around the world. MIT professors have been putting lectures on YouTube for years. The Teaching Company has experimented with multiple business models for making telelectures bring in revenue for universities.
Videoconferencing is allowing doctors to monitor the health of patients around the clock, in the patients’ homes. “The Renaissance Computing Institute in North Carolina has developed an Outpatient Health Monitoring System (OHMS) for patients with chronic conditions such as asthma. The OHMS uses multiple wireless sensors to monitor both a patient’s condition and environmental factors that might affect their condition (such as pollution, allergens, temperature, and humidity). Using an OHMS, patients can work with their doctors to more effectively manage their health before crises arise,” says the report.
The same technology is enabling patients to access hard-to-reach medical specialists. A Hawaiian heart doctor named Benjamin Berg dictated a complicated surgery over an Internet feed for a Guam man located 3,500 miles away. Berg monitored every move and heartbeat of the patient via sensors embedded in the catheter that had been inserted into the patient’s heart.
Wider broadband would allow millions around the world to better telecommute, decreasing traffic and greenhouse-gas emissions and giving people more time to spend with their loved ones. Employers would also be able to look for computersavvy workers in more places.
“On average, those who telecommute save an hour of commuting time each day,” notes the report. “Recent research has found that if all Americans added fiber to their homes, this would contribute to a 5% reduction in gasoline use, a 4% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, $5 billion in lower road expenditures, and 1.5 billion commute hours recaptured.”
The report goes on to project that the number of jobs filled by telecommuters could grow nearly fourfold to 19 million by 2012.
The United States also faces a geopolitical and economic incentive to develop faster broadband – namely, to catch up to the much more developed networks of Japan, South Korea, and other Asian countries. U.S. broadband speed was a median 5 megabits per second (Mbps) in 2007. Median download speeds were 63 Mpbs in Japan, and 49 Mpbs in South Korea.
“By dislodging the United States from the lead it commanded [in broadband] not so long ago, Japan and its neighbors have positioned themselves to be the first states to reap the benefits of the broadband era: economic growth, increased productivity, technological innovation, and an improved quality of life,” wrote Thomas Bleha in the May-June 2005 issue Foreign Affairs.
The ITIF report does not speculate on any potential negative effects of a larger, faster, more-capable Internet in terms of job loss and industry disruption. The recent decimation in the newspaper and print-media industries are widely seen as a consequence of expanded Internet use. Adding to unemployment was presumably not the goal of the U.S. stimulus bill. – Patrick Tucker
Source: “The Need for Speed: The Importance of Next-Generation Broadband Networks,” by Stephen Ezell, Robert Atkinson, Daniel Castro, and George Ou. March 2009. The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. Web site http://www.itif.org.
What Is Broadband, Anyway?
Broadband is sometimes said to make surfing the Internet faster. This is somewhat, but not entirely, true.
The “band” in broadband refers to bandwidth, the key measure of performance for computer networks. Think of it as the width and flatness of particular areas of the information superhighway but instead of transporting cars at speed of miles per hour, the basic unit to describe bandwidth is bits per second (bps). For instance, a 56K bits per second modem is able to download roughly 56 kilo (thousand) bits every second onto a computer from the Internet. These bits in turn make up the text, pictures, links, and video frames in the pages that you see when you go to a Web page. A 3G device can download 3 giga (billion) bits per second. This is why a tiny Apple iPhone can browse pages better than many enormous desktops with huge hard drives.
Even though different devices download bits at different rates, all the bits actually travel through the network at the same speed, the speed of light.
Originally published in THE FUTURIST, July-Augist 2009