Every day in Kyoto carries with it the promise of a rare visual sighting; a geisha moving in graceful but hurried steps between the tea houses in Gion; Maple leaves crisping red at their tips beneath the awnings of Shinto shrines. Kyoto is so notoriously charming and well trafficked by foreign tourists that the casual visitor arriving fresh in the city is tempted to assume that every one of Kyoto’s splendors has already been seen by a thousand previous invaders. But on one particular day in the fall, the city brings out a few of her more private treasures.
It was on this day that I made my way to the center of the city and park myself beside the Shijō Bridge. Here’s the scene as I experienced it a few months ago: some 2,000 Japanese revelers, costumed in bright silk, samurai armor, imperial robes and other accouterments, are about to parade through downtown Kyoto. This is the annual Jidai Matsuri, or Jidai festival, an event intended to showcase the history of the Imperial city–and thus of pre-modern Japan itself–like a ribbon unfurling in the winds of fall.
The festival officially commemorates the day in 794 when Emperor Kammu first entered Kyoto and turned then Heian-kyo into the seat of power. It’s among the most famous and well-attended events in Japan, bringing some 150,000 people into the streets. Leading the procession is an actor playing a Meiji-era dignitary.
Clad in a luxurious golden kimono, waving from the compartment of an austere Victorian horse-drawn carriage, he looks, perhaps, a touch out of place, as though caught between two periods in time. This is how the Meiji Emperor himself would have felt in 1868, the year of the festival’s birth.
Unofficially, the Jidai also marks the year Kyoto lost her most precious jewel. Herein lies the festival’s bitter-sweetness. It was in 1868 that the Meiji council made the decision to move the seat of power to Edo, today called Tokyo, and the emperor was ferried away.
The first Meiji emperor’s real name was Mutsuhito, and he was but fifteen years old when his allies in court defeated the Tokugawa Shogunate, which had occupied the central position of authority in Japan for more than one hundred and fifty years. Mutsuhito’s handlers believed that unless they could unite the county’s federation of samurai warlords under strong Imperial rule, as had been the case hundreds of years ago, Japan would suffer subjugation at the hands of encroaching Western powers.
Like her young emperor, Japan was caught between two eras. Thousands of years of tradition were breaking under the weight of modernity.
Of some relevance to the futurist, Japan finds herself in a similar situation today. The country’s declining fertility has long been known as a key barrier to continued economic growth. And, of course, the economy has remained in a stagnant state for nearly twenty years, with a few brief blips of movement. Last year, Japan slipped behind China in terms of GDP, going from the world’s second largest economy to the third. Yet Japan is uniquely suited to excel in several key areas in the decade ahead. They lead the world in smart, eco-friendly electronic design and have the world’s most developed IT infrastructure (including more fiber-optic cable, putting them ahead of South Korea on a national basis.) Japan faces some severe challenges. But her best days may still lie ahead.
The crowd on the Shijō Bridge snaps pictures and jostles for view as various samurai heroes of the Meiji restoration, such as Saigo Takamor, are followed by court nobles from the Tokugawa Shogunate with their royal trains dragging behind them, and then by various armies. I am waiting for the appearance of a particular figure; but I didn’t have long. There’s a slightly less formal affair occurring in a few hours. It will be crowded and there are no reservations.
Finally, a middle-aged man on horseback in golden robes appears at the end of Shijō Street. He looks like he could be the historic personage I’ve been waiting to see. This man is just an actor dressed up in a heavy costume. But today, if he is who I think he is, he and I share a particular interest. He is the controversial Oda Nobunaga, considered by many the first modern general in the history of Japan. It was Nobunaga who, in the mid-sixteenth century, secured for himself an empire that stretched across much of central Japan, an unprecedented accomplishment that set in motion the eventual unification of the nation.
He’s followed in the march by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Nobunaga’s first in command. Hideyoshi would go on to become one of the most successful and beloved leaders of his era. He had a transformative effect on Kyoto as well. But this story is missing a key player who also appears to be absent from the parade.
“Where is Aketi Mitsuhide?” I ask the woman standing next to me in my best beginner’s Japanese. She looks at me and then away like a nervous bird responding to sudden noise.
“He would not be in this parade,” she answers in English. I should have assumed this. Though Mitsuhide is among the more important figures in Japanese history, he isn’t popular.
Mitsuhide was one of Nobunaga’s top generals, second only to Hideyoshi, but he was not as favored. He resented this bitterly and so, on the evening of June 21, 1582, he took his army into Kyoto, to the temple of Honnō-ji, which Nobunaga used as his base of operations while in the city, and attacked just before dawn. The temple was burned to the ground and Nobunaga was forced to commit suicide at the hands of his former aide. This, perhaps the most famous act of betrayal in Japanese history, took place just blocks from the Shijō Bridge. Mitshuhide’s reign lasted thirteen days before Hideyoshi ended it and assumed control over Nobunaga’s domain.
Nobunaga could very much be considered a futurist. He leveraged the emergent technology of gun-powder to dramatic effect, pioneering a type of warfare that many at the time saw as dishonorable (but that everyone acknowledged as extremely effective.) He also launched a new style of architecture, moved the Imperial capital, and made open war on the powerful Buddhist temples, which he regarded as backward. He was essentially an atheist and lassiez-fair libertarian. As such he made a number of enemies and was not known for his compassion. But he was also a visionary that put in place several key reforms that shepherded Japan into a new era.
I don’t have time to finish the parade. A few minutes later, my wife and our friend Alexander and I find ourselves sharing a train car with, it seems, the entire population of the Kyoto prefecture and every tourist within a thousand miles. We’re traveling north, to the mountain village of Kurama where fire will descend when the sun goes down for the annual No-Hi Matsuri.
We arrive early enough to find a rare treat; on this day, in honor of the celebration, the people of Kurama have pulled out their family treasures and put them on display in front of their homes, including rare pieces of calligraphy painted by ancestors and suits of samurai armor that look like they date back centuries. We find a small picnic area where a few refreshments are on offer, inexpensive sake, hot dogs, and local festival fare. Feeling adventurous, I try one of the so-called octopus balls and discover that it is exactly what it sounds like, hot rolled dough with a purple tentacle in the center of it. My friend Alexander tries a fish, perhaps four inches long, that’s been barbecued and kobbobed. We decide between the three of us that the polite thing for him to do is to eat the entire fish. With weakly-summoned courage, he pulls the head from the skewer and puts it in his mouth as I film the event on his iPhone for his friend back home.
“How is it?” I ask.
“Like a potato chip,” he says. “Wait, I felt something creamy.”
We make the acquaintance of a fellow traveler, a tattooed fellow from Manchester with an accent that would sound foreign somewhere else, but here, in this Japanese mountain village, sounds a bit like home. We ask him to tag along with us for the night. This seems appropriate to the occasion. If the Jidai Matsuri is the Macy’s parade for Japanese history buffs, the Kurama fire festival is Woodstock
A few hours later, the festivities are just getting underway. The narrow, winding roads are already crowded with people. Many of the villagers are in their best, most traditional attire. They’ve lit small watch fires, or kagaribi, by the road side. According to some descriptions of the event, these fires are to help spirits of the dead find their way to the local shrine.
Suddenly, we hear the voices of children calling “Sai rei, sai ryo,” in high and energetic voices. This phrase is best translated as “let this festival be the best festival!” Young boys and girls typically lead the procession escorted by their proud parents.
Next, the quickening beat of Tiako drums tumbles down from the hill top. The first group of large torch-bearers emerge in black loincloth costumes. My wife tells me that these costumes date back to the Heian period (794-1185) when imperial messengers brought torches along with them to pay homage to the local Kurama deity.
“Sai rei, sai ryo” the men yell as they make their way to the Yuki-jinja Shrine, bearing on their shoulders 170 pound pine torches. They’re followed by hundreds of other fire-wielding Kyotoites howling into the smoky night air. Fire seems to be everywhere, crackling and falling from the enormous torches, rising in embers from the kumagari. An orange light trickles down from the mountain like lava. I take a moment to absorb the chaos of the scene.
The structures of this entire village are made primarily of wood and paper and the narrow streets are swollen with people like a river after a flooding rain. This village was never meant to hold this many visitors at once, certainly not for an event that requires such intricate staging as does this festival. The wait for a train back to Kyoto is already two hours long and the major festivities have not yet even begun.
One can imagine that, at some point in the future, the fire festival will have to change. Tickets will have to be procured in advance. Perhaps the number of people allowed to participate will be smaller, or the local authorities will feel the pressure to put in place additional safety precautions, less fire, less fun. If the crowds continue to grow every year, the party may loose some of its charm.
This begs the question, in the era of total transparency, when any event can be publicized globally the moment it occurs, how do events like this festival retain their specialness? How do they keep hold of their integrity, their true meaning, in an age when faith and reason make no allowance for one another, much less for a mountain deity that manifests but once a year?
These questions don’t concern many Japanese. For all the criticism this nation receives, its amazing and inspiring to see a culture that so prizes science can also make room for a bit of magic. It’s said the average Japanese person is born Shinto, lives as an atheist, and dies Buddhist. Shinto holds a monopoly on most of the birth rituals, and Buddhism the death rituals. If you ask the average Japanese, they’ll probably claim no specific religion; even though temples at the start of the year are packed with people making offerings of incense and requesting entry to the Pure Land. Folk beliefs, cold hard materialism, and even some Christian traditions operate in careful balance with one another here. Religion as wedge issue is anathema. The Kurama fire festival will endure for the sake of tradition and community, and perhaps, dare I say it, that’s enough. What could be more rational?
Tonight, the air is full of smoke and voices raised in celebration. A golden carriage is making its way up the hill to the shine, baring inside of it–in the imaginations of the devoted–the Kurama deity himself. Heaven has come to earth and a soft red glow lights the faces of the happy crowd.
About the Author:
Patrick Tucker is the senior editor of THE FUTURIST magazine.